Englefield History

The Manor and Parish of Englefield

 

The history of Englefield is that of a village but it is also more than that. The village itself is indeed a rare survival: one of the very few intact estate villages left in the country, functioning much as it always did and providing homes and jobs in the one place. The village, though, was but the hub of a much greater estate that stretches far beyond it, encompassing other surrounding villages. So the history of Englefield has to be the history of a much wider area, of not only the village but also of a wider parish and of other surrounding parishes.

 

The ancient parishes developed from the manorial system and the manor and parish usually shared the same boundaries. The manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice in rural areas, with the manorial court as its centre of administration, but over time the Church replaced the manorial court.

The first clear view of the parish of Englefield comes in 1762 courtesy of a hand drawn and painted map by Josiah Ballard of the lands of Powlet Wright. The extent of the map is the then parish (the ecclesiastical parish, since civil parishes did not come into existence until the end of the 19th century) and it shows the buildings and roads then in existence. An accompanying book lists the details of land ownership. The image to the left is a copy of this drawn in about 1959 by Gillian Lamperd (now Barton) from the village. An photograph of Ballard's actual map is here.

 

To the north and west the parish was bounded by the rivers Bourne and Pang more or less as today, but the parish was rather smaller in the south west and east. The south western boundary was then what is today called Bostock Lane but was then called Sulhamstead Lane. To the west of this were the common fields of the parish of Sulhamstead and to the west of them, those of Ufton. Both these parishes extended north of the Bath Road up to the top of Mare Ridge in those days.

 

In the south the parish of Englefield extended across the Bath Road with a strip of land running along the north bank of the River Kennet and what is now called the Draper's Osier Bed Stream. This part contained two of the common fields: the Puntfield in the east and the Englefield Meadow in the west, with the Fishery between them.

 

The whole eastern boundary (with the parish of Tilehurst) is somewhat indeterminate on the ground but ran loosely on the line of the modern A340 road, although there is a sort of appendix that juts into the parish of Tilehurst on the eastern edge.

 

The hamlet of North Street (then part of Tilehurst, later part of the parish of Theale) and Mare Ridge Farm (in Sulhamstead) very much looked to Englefield village and church as their centre.

 

Beyond this parish there was also a much wider sphere of influence, certainly by the time of Richard Fellowes Benyon, comprising the outlying estate villages of Sulhamstead, Ufton, Burghfield, Mortimer and many more scattered farms and hamlets. Around the whole area can be seen the characteristic Englefield Estate cottages built in the 19th century. These satellite villages were very much a part of the bigger estate and their inhabitants took part in regular cricket matches, games tournaments at the Club and were included in key festivities. A number of marriages also took place between people from Englefield and these other Estate villages.

 

In the modern day the civil parish has expanded to what might be regarded as its “natural boundaries” and now includes North Street and the former parts of Sulhamstead and Ufton north of the Bath Road. The land south of the Bath Road along the River Kennet is now part of Sulhamstead and the M4 motorway marks the northern boundary today, rather than the River Pang.

 

© 2019 Richard J Smith

Englefield History

Englefield History

Englefield History

Englefield History